The Spanish class has reviewed the following topics - The idea is to continue building a strong foundadtion:
- The sounds of the alphabet, specialy the sounds of the letters B and V, the letter C, the letter G, the letter H, the letters R and RR, the L and LL, the letter N and Ñ, the Q, the letter Z and S.
- The conjugation of regular Spanish verbs - the -AR, -ER, -IR ending verbs
IR verbs endings (For example, the IR ending verb VIVIR = To Live):
ER verbs endings (For example, the ER ending verb COMER= To Eat):
AR verbs endings (For example the AR ending verb HABLAR= To Speak):
- Vocabulary. The students have reviewed and learned Spanish vocabulary. For instance, they have reviewed the following vocabulary (verbs to make them able to describe action):
- Hablar ( To speak)
- Comer (To eat)
- Vivir (To live)
- Trabajar (To work)
- Aprender (To learn)
- Leer (To read).
They have also reviewed and learned additonal vocabulary:
- Mi padre (My father)
- Me gusta (I like)
- Desear (To wish)
- Mi hermano (My brother)
- Mi hermana (My sister)
- Yo tengo (I have)
- Nos gusta (We like)
- Comprar (To buy)
- Practicar (To practice)
- Estudiar (To study)
The goal is that the vocabulary will increase the ability of the student to write more extensively in Spanish
- Writing about specific Spanish topics. The students are required to write about Spanish topics using between 30 and 50 Spanish words. The goal is that the students will be able to write topics using 100 Spanish words. The average is actually between 15 and 30 Spanish words.
- First topic: Describing themselves and the families.
Note: When writing about themselves and the families, the studends are told NOT to disclose information about themselves or their families. They can give "made up" information about themselves and the families; the idea is how they write the information, not the information itself.
- When to Use the verb SER (To Be) and the verb ESTAR (To Be)
To BE or not To Be
- The students reviewed different settings in which the verbs are properly used.
- The verb SER (To Be) is used for:
- - Permanent conditions (Ex. El edificio es alto = The building is tall)
- - Occupations (Ex. Yo soy abogado = I am a lawyer)
- - Place of origin (Ex. Yo soy de Colombia = I am from Colombia)
- - Identification (Ex. El es alto =He is tall
- - Nationality (Ex. Nosotros somos colombianos = We are Colombians)
- - When telling time (EX. Son las dos en punto = It is two o'clock)
The verb ESTAR (To be) is used for:
- - Temporary conditions (Ex. Estoy enfermo = I am sick)
- - Location (Ex. Ocala está en la Florida = Ocala is located in Florida)
- The students have learned and reviewed the following verbs:
- Viajar = To travel (regular)
- Estudiar = To study (regular)
- Aprender = To learn (regular)
- Ayudar =To help (regular)
- Conocer = To know (irregular, changes the base in the first person: YO CONOZCO)
The students can use the Conjugation Chart to conjugate the regular verbs (See above "The conjugation of regular Spanish Verbs)
To Know in Spanish has two different meanings - CONOCER and SABER:
Conocer means To Know or to be acquainted with people and things, ex. Yo conozco a Ocala = I am acquainted with Ocala. I know Juan = I am acquainted with Juan.
Saber meas To Know, but to know information or facts, to know how to do things, ex. I know French, I know how to repair a computer.
The vocabulary will help the students to write extensively in Spanish about assigned topics.
- SPANISH NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.
The name (of the parts) of the human body will be used as context for the students to review/learn the Spanish nouns and adjectives. The students will review/learn how the Spanish nouns and adjectives agree in gender and number (Ex. A masculine adjective describing a masculine noun – libro rojo; plural adjective describing plural noun – libros rojos.
Adjectives include the colors:
Negro (black); azul (blue); green (verde); rubio (blonde); marrón (brown); café (brown); white (blanco). Review the following information:
SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL
Negro Negros Negra Negras
Azul Azules Azul Azules
Verde Verdes Verde Verdes
Rubio Rubios Rubia Rubias
Marrón Marrones Marrón Marrones
Blanco Blancos Blanca Blancas
Rojo Rojos Roja Rojas
Nouns related to the human head:
Cejas (eyebrows); ojos (eyes); nariz (nose); barbilla (chin); pelo (hair); orejas (ears); mejillas (cheeks); boca (mouth).
Tener (to have): Yo tengo, tú tienes, usted tiene, él/ella tiene, nosotros tenemos, ustedes tienen, ellos/ellas tienen.
Ex. Yo tengo pelo negro (I have black hair). Ella tiene ojos marrones (She has brown eyes)
Ser (to be): Yo soy; tú eres, usted es, él/ella es, nosotros somos, ustedes son, ellos/ellas son. Ex. Mi pelo es negro (my hair is black).
Other nouns will follow.
PARTS OF THE BODY:
The students reviewed/learned parts of the body, mainly the following vocabulary was provided and practiced:
La cabeza = The head
La(lass) oreja(s) = The ear (s)
La boca = The mouth
La nariz = The nose
El(los) ojo (s) = The eye (s)
El pelo = The hair
El hombro = The shoulder
El cuello = The neck
El (los) dedo (s) = The finger (s)
El (los) brazo (s) = The arm (s)
El estómago = the stomach
El (los) pie (s) = The foot (feet)
El (los) tobillo (s) = the ankle (s)
La (s) pierna (s) = The leg (s)
La cintura = The hip
El (los) codo (s) = The elbow (s)
La (las) mano (s) = The hand(s)
Also they reviewed/learned additional vocabulary to be able to describe themselves in greater details:
- Los colores (already presented above)
- A = un, una
- Big = grande, grandes (the plural of grande)
- Curly = rizado
- His, her = su (polite)
- Long = largo, larga
- My = mi
- Pretty= bonito, bonita
- Rosado, rosada = pink
- Short = corto
- Some = unos, unas
- Straight = liso (straight for the hair)
- The = el, la, los, las
- Ugly = feo, fea
- Wavy = ondulado
- Your = tu (familiar)
- To have = tener (yo tengo, tu tienes, Usted tiene, él /ella tiene, nosotros tenemos, Ustedes tienen, ellos tienen)
- To be = ser (yo soy, tú eres, Usted es, él/ella es, nosotros somos, Ustedes son, ellos son)The goal is that the studennts will use the nouns (parts of t he body), the adjectives (the colores) and the additional vocabulary to write meaningful essays (to describe themselves) becoming more proficient in the written Spanish. The students had the opportunity to view a video describing several nouns in Spanish and use witten exercises to prctice.
NUMBERS AND TELLING TIME:
This week (beginning 10/7/19, the class will review the numbers from cero (0) to one thousand (1000). Also the class will review/learn how to tell time in Spanish.
The numbers to be reviewed/learned are:
(memorize 1-15 - there are no patterns to follow)
Cero - 0
Uno - 1
Dos - 2
Tres - 3
Cuatro - 4
Cinco - 5
Siete – 7
Nueve – 9
Diez – 10
Once – 11
Doce – 12
Quince – 15
(notice the pattern from the number 16 to 19. Actually, for 16 it is like saying 10 and 6; for 17 it is like saying 10 and 7, etc.)
Dieciséis - 16
Diecisiete – 17
Dieciocho – 18
Diecinueve – 19
Veinte - 20
NOW LEARN THE NUMBERS BY 10's
Treinta - 30
Cincuenta - 50
Sesenta - 60
Setenta - 70
Ochenta - 80
Noventa - 90
Cien - 100
NOW LEARN THE NUMBERS BY 100's
Doscientos - 200
Trescientos - 300
Cuatrocientos - 400
Quinientos - 500
Seiscientos - 600
Setecientos - 700
Ochocientos - 800
Novecientos - 900
Mil - 1000
NOW CONTINUE LEARNING THE NUMBERS BY 1000'S
Dos mil - 2000
Tres mil - 3000, etc.
The class will review/learn telling time in Spanish using the analog clock.
The verb to use is the verb SER (to be), only using two forms of the verb: Es for singular and SON for plural.
- To be in the singular (ES) when one refers to the one (1) hour, for example: Es la una en punto (it is one o'clock).
- To be in the plural (SON) when one refers from the 2- to the - 12 hour, for example: Son las dos de la tarde (it is two in the afternoon).
Other helpful vocabulary will be:
- Minutos - minutes
- Quince minutos (15 minutes)
- Un cuarto de hora (one fourth of the hour) or 15 minutes.
-Media hora (half)
- Menos (literally means Less)
- y (and)
A verb is reflexive when the SUBJECT and the DIRECT OBJECT are the same person. The subject is doing something onto itself. We express this in English by saying self.”
They are more common in Spanish that in English.
The following are the personal pronouns next to the respective reflexive pronouns in English:
"Spanish reflexive verbs
Spanish reflexive verbs are those where the subject and the object are the same, and where the action “reflects back” on the subject. They must be used with a reflexive pronoun such us myself, yourself and himself in English. Below you can see the Spanish reflexive pronouns:
You (formal singular)
How does one know that a verb (the infinitive) in Spanish is reflexive?
Just notice the ending of the verb (infinitive); the Spanish reflexive verb (infinitive) end with ES, for example:
LlamarSE = To call oneself Me llamo Juan (I call myself Juan)
Llamar = to call (someone) Yo llamo a mi amigo (I call my friend)
LevantarSE = To lift up oneself (to get up)
Levantar = To lift (to lift up a chair)
STUDY GUIDE FOR THE TEST ON 10/23/19 AND 10/24/19:
1. When is a verb REFLEXIVE:?
A verb is reflexive when the subject and the object are the same.
I wash myself. subject: I verb: wash object: myself
Since the subject and object are the same, the verb is reflexive.
Note: I wash the car. subject: I verb: wash object: car
Since the subject and object are different, the verb is not reflexive.
- In Spanish when a verb is reflexive, the infinitive ends in “se.”
lavarse to wash oneself (reflexive) Lavar to wash (non-reflexive)
- To learn to conjugate reflexive verbs in Spanish, you need to learn a different set of pronouns called “reflexive pronouns.” These pronouns are positioned before the verb, while the ending “se” is dropped and the verb is conjugated normally (Remember: The verb is conjugated normally, for example: Llamar: yo llamo, tú llamas, usted llama, él llama, ella llama, nosotros llamamos, ustedes llaman, ellos llaman. Remember the position of the reflexive pronouns: In front of the conjugated verb: For example, Yo ME llamo (I call myself).
Note: Refer to the reflexive pronouns table FOR THE SPANISH PRONOUNS.
- Place of reflexive pronouns: In front of the conjugated verb: Yo ME llamo Jorge
Formula: Subject (yo) + Pronoun (me) + conjugated verb (llamo)
- Know the meaning of the following reflexive verbs:
Acostarse to go to bed.
Bañarse to have a bath.
Cepillarse to brush.
levantarse to get up.
llamarse to be called.
Vestirse to get dressed.
Lavarse to wash.
Mirarse To look at oneself.
Maquillarse To put make up on.
Peinarse to comb one’s hair
- Translate the following sentences to Spanish (use the reflexive pronouns): A. She brushes her teeth B. You wash your hair C. He looks in the mirror. D. Maria puts make-up on her face. E. I comb my hair
7. Complete the following phrases (Fill in the blanks):
A. Yo_________ levanto temprano todos los días. (levantarse)
B. Él__________ viste rápidamente.(vestirse)
C. ¿Ustedes____ bañan todos los días? (bañarse)
- How do you know if a verb is reflexive? A. It ends in "ar" B. It ends in "er" C. It ends in "ir" D. It ends in "se" after the "ar", "er", or "ir"
- Some verbs use the reflexive pronoun only sometimes. When would the verb "lavar" (to wash) not use the reflexive pronoun?
- Lavo el coche
- Me lavo el pelo
A. When the speaker feels like saying the reflexive pronoun or not. B. Only if the verb ends in "ar" C. When the action of "washing" is done to something or someone else D. Depends if the object is a human or a car
- Complete the phrase (fill in the blank) Ustedes (_____) las manos antes de comer. A. lavan B. lávense C. se lavan D. nos lavan
NOTE: For the test: 1. Know the reflexive pronouns Spanish/English.
2. Know how to translate reflexive phrases (5) from Spanish to English; for example: Me llamo Maria = My name is Maria.