Unit 2 Vocabulary
Alexander Graham Bell
Garrett Morgan (gas mask, traffic light)
Lewis Latimer (carbon filament)
Madam C. J. Walker
American Federation of Labor
Knights of Labor
1st Industrial Revolution
2nd Industrial Revolution
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Push Pull Factors
Chinese Exclusion Act
Go West – Westward Movement
- Key Terms
- Migration: The movement of people from one place to another
- “Push” Factors: Factors that cause people to leave a place, like ethnic persecution, drought, or poverty
- “Pull” Factors: Factors that attract people to a new place, such as cheap land, political freedom, mineral discoveries or other economic opportunities
- Frontier: The imaginary line separating “settled” and “unsettled” areas
- Settlement of the Last American Frontier: the Great Plains and Far West
- Great Plains – Rolling, treeless, grassy plains with little rain but fertile soil
- “Pull” Factors Leading to Settlement of the West
- Discoveries of precious metals
- Completion of transcontinental railroad
- Relocation of Indians: “Indian Wars” & Reservations
- Cheap or free land: Homestead Act of 1862
- Evolution of Different Parts of the American West
- Mining: Boom towns sprang up overnight where gold and silver were discovered.
- “Cattle Kingdom”: Cowboys drove cattle, grazing on the “open range,” to railroads. The “open range” ended in the late 1880s, to be replaced by the “closed range.”
- Farmers: Adapted to the dry conditions of the Great Plains by using barbed wire fences, sod houses, wells for groundwater, windmills to pump water, steel plows, and farm machinery.
- The American Indian Experience
- Plains Indians: Hunted buffalo on the Great Plains
- “Indian Wars” (1864 – 1890): Federal troops stationed in forts defeated the Indians in a series of clashes and removed them to remote reservations
- The Cheyenne and the Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
- Sioux – Black Hills; Custer and Crazy Horse at Little Big Horn; Wounded Knee Massacre (1890)
- Chief Joseph and Nez Perce flight to Canada
- Apaches and Comanche’s in the Southwest
- Reservation System: Tribes forced onto reserved lands, often dry and undesirable. Federal Indian agents and religious teachers provided some services like schools, but government agents often did not keep their promises.
- Dawes Act (1887): Shock at mistreatment of Indians by Helen Hunt Jackson and other reformers led to this attempt to “Americanize” Indians. An Indian could apply to take his own private land from the tribe’s reservation land. The Dawes Act actually led to the sell-off of Indian lands.
The Civil War
The Civil War was the most divisive conflict in American History. More Americans were killed in this war that in any other. The wounds left by the Civil War took decades to heal.
- Long Term Causes of the Civil War
- Sectionalism: People felt greater loyalty to their section – the North, South, or West – than to the
nation as a whole.
- Abolitionists wanted to end slavery.
- Escaped slaves like Frederick Douglass spoke out against the horrors of slavery.
- Pro-slavery apologists in the South argued that slaves were better off than Northern factory workers.
- Extension of Slavery
- Many Northerners did not want to see slavery extended to new territories
- Southerners feared being outnumbered by free states if slavery did not spread.
- States’ Rights: Many Southerners believed states had the right to leave the Union if they wished.
- Causes of the Civil War: The Breakdown of Compromise
- Early Compromises over the Slavery Question
- Missouri Compromise (1820)
- Missouri admitted as a slave state and Maine as a free state
- Slavery prohibited in the Louisiana Purchase north of the Missouri Compromise line
- Compromise of 1850
- California admitted as a free state
- Sale of slaves banned in Washington, D.C.
- Tough Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
- Popular sovereignty applied to the slavery question in the rest of Mexican Cession
- The Breakdown of Compromise
- Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) - Popular sovereignty to determine the slavery question in remaining
territories of Louisiana Purchase, reopening the slavery issue there.
- Birth of Republican Party (1854) – Republicans opposed the extension of slavery.
- “Bleeding Kansas” (1855 – 1856) – Anti-slavery and pro-slavery settlers violently contested control of
the Kansas Territory.
- Dred Scott decision (1857)
- Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott, an African American, was not a citizen and had no right to
sue in court.
- The Court also ruled that Congress had no rights to forbid slavery in the territories.
- John Brown’s Raid (1859) – John Brown, a white abolitionist, attacked a federal arsenal in Virginia
hoping to stir up slave revolts throughout the South.
III. Causes of the Civil War: The Secession Crisis
- Presidential Election of 1860: Democrats were divided, helping Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln
to win the election with 39% of the vote.
- South Carolina immediately seceded.
- Six Southern states followed, forming the Confederacy.
- Four states of the upper South seceded after war broke out.
- Fort Sumter
- Lincoln sent supplies to this fort in Charleston Harbor.
- Confederate forces fired on the fort, starting the Civil War.
- Border states stayed loyal to the Union.
Reconstruction: America’s “Unfinished Revolution”?
- The Battle over Reconstruction
- Freedmen’s Bureau was set up to help freedmen; 13th Amendment abolished slavery.
- Presidential Reconstruction
- Lincoln wanted to readmit Southern states when 10% voters pledged allegiance to the Union and recognized end of slavery.
- Johnson insists Confederate leader seek personal pardons.
- Black Codes: New Southern state governments with former Confederate leaders pass “Black Codes,” restricting the rights of freedmen.
- Congressional Reconstruction
- Shocked at the Black Codes and the election of Confederate leaders, Radical Republicans refuse to set Southerners in Congress.
- Civil Rights Act, passed over Johnson’s veto, grants freedmen rights of citizenship, overturning Black Codes.
- Civil Rights Act is rewritten as 14th Amendment, granting all citizens:
- “Due process of law”: right to fair procedures before a state government takes away a person’s property or freedom
- “Equal protection of the laws”: state laws should treat people equally
- Reconstruction Act (1867) divides the South into military occupation zones.
- Impeachment of President Andrew Johnson
- Radical Republicans pass the Tenure of Office Act: The President needs Senate consent to remove cabinet members.
- Johnson impeached for removing his Secretary of War. He is the first President to be impeached. When tried in the Senate, Johnson is saved from removal by one vote.
- Reconstruction Governments
- Carpetbaggers, scalawags, and freedmen participate in Reconstruction governments.
- African Americans vote and serve in government during this experiment in biracial democracy. Hiram Rhodes Revel becomes the first African American in Congress.
- Reconstruction governments ban racial discrimination, establish public schools, and encourage railroad construction – but they are also guilty of corruption.
- Reconstruction Economics
- Sharecropper: uses the land and tools of the landlord in exchange for part of crop
- Tenant farmer: rents land from landlord
- Debt peonage: loss of freedom to move away because of debts to landlord or business owner
- “New South”: new economy of South with greater crop diversity, more railroads, and some manufacturing
- The End of Reconstruction
- North loses interest after economic depression in 1873.
- Rutherford B. Hayes withdraws troops in a deal to win the disputed 1877 Presidential election.
- Southern Democrats return to power.
- Ku Klux Klan and other groups terrorize African Americans.
- The “Jim Crow” Laws: the “Nadir” in Race Relations
- Southern state governments take steps to stop African-American voting: literacy tests, poll taxes, residency requirements. Whites exempted by “grandfather clauses.”
- African Americans intimidated by violence and economic dependence.
- Southern state governments pass “Jim Crow” laws requiring racial segregation, or separation of whites and blacks, in schools, railroads, restaurants and other public places.
- “Jim Crow” laws upheld by the Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): Facilities can be “separate but equal.”
Terms to Study
Literally defined as "rule of the people," democracy is a form of government in which all citizens exercise political power, either directly or through their elected representatives. See alsorepresentative democracy
The idea prevalent in early modern Europe that monarchs derive their authority directly from God. Adherents to this doctrine claimed that to disobey such monarchs, to attempt to replace them, or to limit their powers is contrary to the will of God. Also known as the divine right of kings.
Also known as the Great Charter, King John of England agreed to this document in 1215 at the demand of his barons. The Magna Carta granted certain civil rights and liberties to English nobles and to all "freemen," such as the right to a jury of one's peers and the guarantee against loss of life, liberty, or property except in accordance with law. Some rights were guaranteed for all the king's subjects, free or not free. In doing so, the Magna Carta limited the power of the king, who agreed that his will could be bounded by law, and became a landmark in the history of constitutional government.
The doctrine that people have basic rights, such as those to life, liberty, and property in a state of nature. Some writers, especially those influencing the American Founders, argued that certain of these rights are inalienable-inherent in being human-and that people create governments to protect those rights.
social contract theory
Presumption of an imaginary or actual agreement among people to set up a government and obey its laws. The theory was developed by the English natural rights philosopher John Locke, among others, to explain the origin of legitimate government.