• 10th Grade: AICE English Language 1 (AS Level)

    Read the first two selections and then either Ender’s Game or Hiroshima.

    • The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway
    • A Lesson Before Dying by Ernest J. Gaines


    • Ender’s Game by Orson Scott Card


    • Hiroshima by John Hersey (the edition you read must include Chapter 5 – The Aftermath)

    * Note: Hiroshima is a non-fiction account of six individuals who survived the atomic bomb dropped on
    Hiroshima, Japan in 1945 at the close of WWII. If you are not into history, then the book’s 152 pages may seem
    like 324. Ender’s Game is a science fiction novel of 324 pages; if you like sci-fi stories, then it will likely seem
    like 152 pages.

     See Mr. Jordan for any vocab word additons.  Otherwise, feel free to start with this list.  

    10th Grade AICE English Language Summer Vocabulary – Mr. Jordan


    Yes, there are 339 words on this list. However, you likely will find that you know or are familiar with many of them. Please do not be intimidated by this list; trust me, you can handle it. You will eventually need to make flashcards for all of the words, so you can begin doing that over the summer if you choose. On one side of the index card write the word and the part of speech, and on the other side write the complete definition. This will likely prove to be a good study aid throughout the year. During the first few months of school we will discuss these words, and you will be tested on them during the first two quarters.


    Below are the eight Parts of Speech. I know you learned them in elementary school, but you will need to have an intimate knowledge of them in my class – so please know them well.


    1. Noun a person, place, thing or idea
    2. Pronoun takes the place of nouns or other pronouns
    3. Adjective describes nouns and pronouns
    4. Verb shows action or state of being
    5. Adverb modifies verbs, adjectives and other adverbs
    6. Conjunction joins words, groups of words and sentences together
    7. Interjection shows excitement or emotion
    8. Preposition shows how a noun or pronoun relates to other words in the sentence


    1. commence (v) – to begin or start… We have goofed around long enough; it’s probably time to commence class.
    2. pauper (n) -- a very poor person   … Since Lonnie squandered all of his earnings, he lived out his retirement

    years as a pauper.  


    1. indigent -- (adj/noun) – poor; needy … Johnnie was so determined to remove himself from his indigent lifestyle

    that he worked three jobs for several years.  

        affluent (adj/noun) -- wealthy  (n) -- a tributary stream … Johnnie’s hard work eventually paid off, and he became

    one of the more affluent individuals in the neighborhood. 


    1. predicament (n) -- a difficult or trying situation; a quandary (similar to conundrum) … Frankie’s predicament

    led to many sleepless nights until he finally decided to do the right thing. 


    1. disconsolate (adj) – hopelessly sad and unhappy; miserable and unable to be cheered up; inconsolable;

                despondentAfter FSU lost for the fifth straight year to the mighty Florida Gators, Ba-la-kay Hartwell

    was so disconsolate that he sobbed like a little schoolgirl who had her money stolen on snow cone day.


    1. succinct (adj) -- brief and clear in expression; concise You goals as a writer should be to be clear, concise, and



    1. irk (v) – to irritate or agitate (adj – irked) … If you continue to irk Pahana, then he conceivably could start

    crying and ask for his mommy and teddy bear. 


    1. perturb (v) – ditto (adj – perturbed)  … Pahana is rather perturbed and eventually may decide to go

    crying to his mommy. (The aforementioned sentence is courtesy of Lauren Lynn Veternik.)


    1. ditto (n) – the same as stated above or before


    1. irate & livid (adj) -- extremely angry; enraged … If you continue harassing Pahana, then he likely will become irate and may decide to go upside your jaw and send your teeth flying. 


    1. indignant (adj) -- angry due to something unjust… Frankie, the only FSU fan in the class, became indignant

    when the teacher let everyone else make up the test but him. (noun – indignation)  … Lonnie’s indignation

    grew until he finally decided to protest the governor’s decision. 


    Pregunta: What happens when you add a prefix to a word?


    Pregunta: What happens when you add a suffix to a word?


    1. righteous (adj) – behaving according to a religious or moral code; free from guilt or sin


    1. righteous indignation – This is a reactive emotion of anger over perceived mistreatment, insult, or

    malice. Anger and contempt combined with a feeling that it is one's right to feel that way; anger

    without guilt


    1. feasible (adj) -- capable of being done or carried out; possibleIt is simply not feasible to drive from Ocala to

    Atlanta in less than four hours.


        plausible (adj) -- seemingly true or believable If you’re going to make up an excuse for running the stop

    sign, at least make it a plausible one.


    1. verbatim (adj or adv) – word for word … I want you to repeat verbatim what the teacher said.


    1. erratic (adj) -- not even or regular in pattern or movement; unpredictable…. Because Billy’s decision

    making is so erratic, he is bound to get himself into some serious trouble.


    1. profound (adj) – 1.) having intellectual depth and insight; 2.) far-reaching or deep (n – profundity) … The

    teacher led a profound discussion about the meaning of life. … The book had a profound impact on how I

    live my life.


    1. save (prep) – except for; excluding … Everyone save Billy passed the examSave Billy, everyone passed.

          sans (prep) – without  … We were able to win the game sans our best player.


    1. assuage (v) -- to ease or make less severe; to soothe or relieve; to mollify; alleviateJust last week, my

    mother was finally able to assuage my fears of sleeping without the bathroom light on… Perhaps a

    massage would assuage your back pain.


    1. reconcile (v) -- to reestablish a close relationship; to settle or resolve… After a year of not talking to each

    other, the two classmates decided it was best to reconcile. (reconciliation – noun) 


    1. wont (adj) – accustomed to or used to doing something…He is wont to cheat when he doesn’t know an answer.


    1. macabre (adj) -- suggesting the horror of death and decay; gruesome; ghastly … Edgar Allan Poe is known for

    his macabre short stories that could potentially give nightmares to younger readers. 


    1. solace (n) -- relief from emotional distress; a source of comfort in a time of sadness, grief, or

    disappointment… Even though FSU loses to Florida in everything, they can take solace in

    knowing that they have a top-notch clown program.


    1. trivial (adj) – unimportant or insignificant… If you continue to get worked up over such trivial matters, you

    are only going to make yourself miserable in life. 


    1. frivolous (adj) -- not as serious as the occasion requires; so trivial as to be considered absurd; (frivolity – noun) …

    Even though I generally watch every Gator game, football became kind of frivolous during the three months

    that my grandmother was extremely ill… A kid’s life is full of frivolities that adults simply don’t have time for,

    such as Facebragging and ChapSnatting and Twittering and Instant-gramming.


    1. credible (adj) -- able to be believed; convincing… Since Billy is a well-known liar, very few people found his story credible.


    1. reluctant (adj) -- not inclined to do something; hesitant (noun – reluctance) … Paige and Brooke Insco’s

    reluctance to comply with the teacher’s request eventually landed them in the principal’s office. 


    1. curt (adj) -- rudely abrupt or brief; brusque; short in language; (curtly –adverb) … Since Lauren Lynn

    Veternik refused to be polite and respectful, she was sent to the office for her curt responses to the

    teacher’s questions.  … Billy  responded curtly to the officer’s questions and ended up being arrested.


    1. subside (v) – to diminish in intensity or become less… The pain in Johnny’s leg has yet to subside and will likely continue to hurt for quite some time.
    2. ambiguous (adj) – something whose meaning is unclear or open to more than one interpretation… Even

    though every group was supposed to be doing the same thing, they were all doing something different, so

    perhaps the teacher’s directions were a little ambiguous.   (ambiguity – noun) 


    1. rash (adj) -- acting too quickly and without thinking; hasty (haste – noun… Haste makes waste.)

    Billy’s rash decisions inevitably lead to him getting suspended every year. In the future, he needs to think before he acts.


    1. solemn (adj) – without joy or humor; dismal, gloomy or somber; sullen The day Grain Vault disbanded was

    perhaps the most solemn day of my life. It was so devastating that I’m not quite sure when my misery will subside.  (noun – solemnity) 


    1. benign (adj) – 1.) having a kind and gentle disposition or appearance; 2.) neutral or harmless;

    3.) not malignant  … Since Johnny is one of the most benign students I have ever taught, I cannot believe

    he got a referral for insubordination… Fortunately, my grandmammy’s tumor was benign. 


    1. incessant (adj) – continuous or non-stop … Billy was sent to the office for his incessant talking.

    (incessantly -- adverb)… Make sure you understand the difference between incessant and perpetual

          perpetual (adj) -- continuing forever; everlasting… The world is in perpetual motionSuzy is perpetually

    leaving the milk out on the counter after using it. (perpetual is a stronger or more exaggerated word than

    incessant)(perpetually – adverb)      (perpetuity – noun)    


    1. du jour – a French phrase which literally means “of the day.” In English, it can mean either an item served

           in a restaurant on a particular day (What is the soup du jour?) or something that is happening or

           popular at the current time, month or year (The term “Lit” apparently is the word du jour.) 


    1. lethargy (n) -- a state of sluggishness, inactivity or apathy (lethargic – adj.)… All you do is lay on the couch all

    day. Get up and do something with your life because your lethargy is driving me crazy. 


    1. apathy (n) -- a lack of interest or concern, especially in important matters (apathetic – adj)… Your apathy is

    concerning because you are more than capable of doing the work yet you have D’s and F’s in all subjects.



    1. indolent (adj) -- not inclined to work; lazy (indolence – noun) … Johnny is quite capable of getting good

    grades, but his indolence is forever getting in the way of his success. 


    1. divert (v) – 1.) to change the route or path taken by something; 2.) to take somebody’s mind

    off something and draw attention to something else       (diversion – noun)    … Traffic was diverted due to

    the flooding of 17th St. … The students did their best to divert the teacher’s attention until the bell rang. …

    The criminals created a diversion in order to rob the jiffy store.


    1. trudge (v) – to walk or march with slow, heavy, weary steps … After playing for three hours in the grueling

    summer heat, the players trudged off the field and headed to the locker room.




    1. rectify (v) – to correct or fix; to set straight; to remedyIf you want to bring up your grade, I will allow you

    to take home your essay and rectify all of your mistakes.   (remedy as a noun – We are still searching for a

    remedy to this problem.)


    1. beckon (v) – 1.) to make a gesture with the hand, arm, or head to encourage someone to come nearer or follow;

    to summonThe assistant principal beckoned me to her office yesterday at lunch. … The man finally

    received his summons to appear in court.


    1. proponent (n) – a supporter or advocate of an idea, program, initiative, etc. … Johnny is perhaps the biggest

    proponent of the new plan as he has spent countless hours handing out pamphlets and raising funds.

    (advocate can also be used as a verb – I will always advocate for my students until they betray me.)                     


    1. via (prep) -- by way of … I will stay in contact with you via e-mail… We travelled to Boston via train.

          vie (v) -- to strive for superiority; to contend or compete for … Three teams are vying for the championship.

    1. exorbitant (adj) – much too high in price or amount … Mr. Jordan does his best to provide his students a

    quality and challenging education without giving an exorbitant amount of homework. … That new car is

    within my price range, but I’m just not sure I can afford the exorbitant insurance and maintenance fees.


    1. concur (v) – to agree (with) Parts of what you just said are accurate, but I’m not sure I can completely

    concur with your entire assessment.  … Yes, I concur.


    1. adversary (n) – an enemy or opponent … Even though Lonnie was once my best friend, I now consider him to

    be my adversary as he stole my car and girlfriend. … The softball team did their best to prepare for its

    most hated adversary: Forest. 


    1. elaborate (v) – to explain further; to give more information; expound (noun – elaboration)

    (adj) – complex or rich in detail … Since Billy did not elaborate on his essay, the teacher was forced to

    deduct points for lack of support and evidence.  … (elaborate as an adjective – That was one of the

    more elaborate responses you’ve ever given; I’m quite impressed with your improvement.  


    1. prolong (v) -- to lengthen in duration … Students will often ask irrelevant questions in an attempt to prolong

    the discussion, so they can avoid taking the quiz at the end of class. … Timeouts and commercials prolong

    many sporting events.


    1. detrimental (adj) -- damaging or harmfulNot turning in homework is detrimental to your grade… Smoking

    of any kind is detrimental to your health.


    1. significant (adj) – 1) important; major… This test will be a significant part of your first nine weeks grade.

    2)  a lot… There are a significant number of mistakes in your essay.  (significance – noun)


    1. inevitable (adj) – certain to occur or bound to happen… If you continue to text and drive, it is inevitable that

    you will be involved in some sort of traffic accident… Inevitably, we all will face heartache at some point

    in our lives.


          imminent (adj) -- near; approaching; about to happen (don’t confuse with eminent (adj) -- prominent; famous;

    distinguished) … With the hurricane bearing down on the east coast, we are in imminent danger… You

    have had three months to study for the exam; now, the test is imminent.    


    1. digress (v) -- to stray, especially from the main subject in writing or speaking (digression – noun)

                            Politicians have a tendency to digress when asked a controversial question they would prefer not to







    1. imply (v) -- to express indirectly noun -- implication … The theme of most stories in literature is implied and

    you must read carefully in order to figure it out.  … If you are implying that I stole Billy’s lunch money,

    then you are sorely mistaken.


          infer (v) -- to make a logical assumption (often based on prior knowledge)

             (noun) – inference   The theme of most short stories is implied; as a result, the reader must infer what

            the theme is. … The scientist made an incorrect inference and was forced to start his experiment from scratch.


    implicit (adj) -- implied but not plainly expressed … Even though my directions were implicit, it was quite

    obvious I didn’t want you writing on the desks.

    explicit (adj) -- stated clearly and in detail, leaving no room for confusion or doubt … The teacher’s

    instructions were so explicit that the only way you could have botched the assignment was if you

    simply were not listening.


    1. corroborate (v) – to confirm or give support to (a statement, theory, or finding)… If the police want to

    arrest Billy for doing the crack rock, then they will to get a reliable witness to corroborate the boy's

    account of the crime."     (corroboration – noun)


    1. transform (v)- to change noticeably in appearance, form or condition (generally for the better)

                (noun – transformation) … Billy has undergone quite a transformation since the days when he cheated and

    lied and stole on a daily basis. 


    1. protocol (n) -- a code of correct conduct … What is the protocol in this class for making up work?


    1. diligent (adj) – careful and hardworking (diligence – noun) … Suzy’s diligence likely will result in good

    grades in this class. 


    1. negligent (adj) – careless or neglectful (negligence – noun) … Lonnie’s recent negligence has caused his

    grades to slide precipitously. 


    1. potable (adj.) – safe to drink; drinkable … I’m not sure if that water from that stream is potable, so unless

    you’re dying you should wait until we get home. 


    1. wanderlust (n) – an urge to wander or travel… Billy’s wanderlust led him to travel the world after graduation.



    1. futile (adj) -- having no useful result; in vain (futility – noun) … All of Mr. Jordan’s attempts to get a date for

    the dance were futile – that is, until his grandmother said YES. … Lonnie made 53 futile attempts at making

    a 3-point shot. … All of his requests were in vain.


           vain (adj) -- 1. not successful; futile (His attempts were in vain.)   2. excessively proud of one’s appearance

    or accomplishments; conceited; narcissistic   (noun – vanity) … Lonnie is so vain that he spends nearly

    half his life looking at himself in the mirror. … Frankie’s vanity is increasing as he is forever talking about his accomplishments. …     a vanity can also be a bathroom cabinet containing a sink and usually having a countertop; or a small desk that has a mirror where makeup is applied… a vanity mirror is a small, compact mirror used for applying makeup  


    1. implement (v) – to put into effect… Since this is not working, it’s probably time to implement a new plan.

    (noun – implementation)


    1. pummel (v) – to pound; to beat repeatedly with the fist … I’m quite certain Florida will pummel FSU once

    again this season. 


    1. intervene (v) – to come between as if to separate (intervention – noun) … The deans intervened before the

    dispute in the lunchroom got out of hand.  





    1. adhere (v) -- to follow or stick to…You must adhere to the rules or face expulsion. (noun- adhesive/adherence)

                 Tape is an adhesive.   We need there to be complete adherence to the rules if this plan has a chance to succeed.


          comply (v) – to obey… You must comply with the rules or face expulsion.  (compliance – noun)

                   We need there to be complete compliance with the rules if this plan has a chance to succeed.


    1. antithesis (n) -- the direct opposite … Billy is a hard worker, but his brother is the antithesis and just lays

    around on the couch all weekend.


    1. scrutinize (v) – to examine closely (noun – scrutiny) … All of this scrutiny is putting tremendous stress on me.


    1. reiterate (v) – to restate something for emphasis or clarity (noun – reiteration) … The boss reiterated the

    instructions so that everyone understood what to do.


    1. salvage (v) – to save from total loss or destruction… You can still salvage your grade if you work hard.

                … a junkyard is also often known as a salvage yard


    1. resilient (adj) -- characterized by the ability to recover from or adjust to misfortune or change… Johnny is one

    of the more resilient individuals I’ve ever met. Regardless of how many times he has failed the test, he

    never gives up.   (noun – resilience)


    1. subtle (adj) -- so slight as to be difficult to detect; not obvious… The school’s changes to the gym were so subtle

    that few students even noticed them. 


    1. loathe (v) -- to dislike greatly; to really hate (despise, detest, abhor, disdain) … If you are smart, then you

    should loathe the colors garnet and gold. 


          loath (adj)  unwilling or reluctant… Billy Francois is loath to tell the truth when backed into a corner.

    Instead, he tends to tell falsehoods that inevitably lead to more falsehoods.



    1. assertive (adj) -- characterized by boldness or confidenceSuzy needs to be a little more assertive;

    otherwise, people will continue to take advantage of herIt is possible to be assertive without

    being rude, even when discussing matters with a teacher or a boss.       assert (v); assertion (n)



    1. cease (v) -- to bring or come to an end; to stop (don’t confuse with the verb “seize” … Unless you want to get

    sent to the office, it would be wise to cease that inappropriate behavior.


    1. emigration (n) - the act of leaving a country or region to live elsewhere (antonym of immigration)


    1. imperative (adj) – necessary or mandatory (generally because it’s important – but imperative doesn’t

    mean “important” … If you want to read and write well, then it is imperative that you have a strong vocabulary.


    1. deviate (v) -- to stray or move away from an established course, way, or prescribed mode of behavior

    (n) -deviation  … If this plan is going to be successful, it is imperative that no one deviate from your



    1. aberration (n) -- a deviation from the normal or the typical; an anomaly Suzy has always done well in

    school, so I don’t think I would get too worried about one poor grade on an assignment. That probably was

    just an aberration, and she will recover just fine.


    1. arduous (adj) - difficult or hard to do; laborious; strenuous… If you actually apply yourself, this class won’t be too arduous.


    1. reprieve (n) – a cancellation or postponement of a punishment … The test has been postponed until Tuesday,

    so hopefully everyone will take advantage of this reprieve.  … Under the new law, all prisoners accused of

    that crime will be given a reprieve and will be re-tried next month.





    1. RSVP (French) – is derived from the French phrase répondez s'il vous plait meaning "please respond" … It is

    helpful if you RSVP to the wedding before the date on the invitation so that the hosts know how many            people they need to feed.


          bon appetit (French) -- a salutation to a person about to eat; literally means “good appetite” but is used to

    mean “enjoy your meal” … Some waitresses at nice restaurants will say “bon appetit” when they deliver your chow to the table.



    1. arbitrary (adj) – 1.) chosen or determined at random without rhyme, reason, or logic 2.) based solely on

    personal wishes, feelings, or perceptions rather than on objective facts, reasons or principles … The boss

    often seems to give raises to anyone wearing orange on Tuesdays, which is a rather arbitrary way to

    reward his employees.   


    1. supplement (v) -- to make or become greater in size, extent or quantity; to increase; to augmentBilly

    worked odd jobs on the weekend in order to supplement his income… Since certain supplements are

    banned, athletes must be careful what they put into their system.


    1. ad nauseam (adv) -- to a disgusting or absurd degree… We have discussed that topic ad nauseam, so let’s move

    on…. The issue of Donald Trump’s tax returns was covered ad nauseam by the press.


    1. bewilder (v) – to confuse; baffle; confound; perplex; befuddle I am confounded as to why Billy would

    cheat on the test when he could have easily done the work himself.   (adj – bewildering, baffling,

    confounding, perplexing, befuddling)    That is one of the more perplexing questions of today’s society.


    1. sophomoric (adj) -- of or like a sophomore; exhibiting immaturity and lack of judgment… Students’

    sophomoric decisions and behavior will inevitably get them in trouble... Johnny’s sophomoric writing style

    needs significant improvement.


    1. omnipotent (adj) -- having unlimited power, authority or force … Even though the president is the leader of

    our country, he is not completely omnipotent as many decisions must be cleared by members of Congress.


    1. omniscient (adj) -- having total knowledge; knowing everything … Sometimes I wonder if my mother is

    omniscient as she seems to know just about everything that happens at school. 


    1. omnipresent (adj) -- being or seeming to be everywhere at the same time; ubiquitousEverywhere I go at

    school it seems as if I see Suzy. It’s almost as if she’s ubiquitous. … You can’t drive very far on the

    interstate without seeing the ubiquitous advertisement billboards.


    1. critique (n) - a critical analysis or evaluation… You need to write a critique of the speech.


    1. stoic (adj) – unemotional; stolid Johnny remained stoic despite receiving such devastating news.


    1. 93. litany (n) – a long, often repetitious list… Johnny had a litany of complaints about his boss… There were a

    litany of grammar mistakes in your last essay.



    1. placate (v) -- to appease or pacify, especially by making concessions… Since Johnny wanted to sit on the couch all day and watch college football, he had no desire to attend the dance recital. He, nonetheless, chose to go anyway as he knew the importance of placating his wife. A happy wife equals a happy life.
    2. epitome (n) -- a typical or perfect example of its kind … Suzy is the epitome of what a student-athlete should

    be: dedicated, hard-working, polite, and respectful….  epitomize – verb … Suzy epitomizes what a student

    athlete should be: dedicated, hard-working, polite, and respectful. 


    1. expedite (v) -- to speed up the process of; to make quicker & usually easier … Years ago, gas stations placed

    credit card machines at the pumps in order to expedite the pumping and paying for fuel.  (think of the

    website Expedia.com)


    1. ostracize (v) -- to banish or exclude from a group; to alienateEver since Billy started doing drugs, his

    friends slowly but surely ostracized him for his inappropriate and illegal behavior. 


    1. sinister (adj) – evil or suggesting evil … He has one of the most sinister laughs I’ve ever heard.


    1. prolific (adj) -- producing something in great abundance… Ernest Hemingway was a prolific writer of short stories and novels.


    1. succumb (v) -- to give in … Please do not succumb to the pressures of doing crack rock.
    2. venerable- (adj) commanding respect as a result of age, dignity, character, or position … Since Duke

    University in North Carolina is one of the more venerable institutions in the country, it is extremely

    difficult to be accepted there.


    1. eradicate (v) – to remove or destroy completely (eradication – noun) … The exterminator is doing

    everything he can to eradicate the roach infestation in the basement. 


    1. exacerbate (v) -- to make a situation worse; to increase the severity of … If you continue to argue with your teacher, you will just exacerbate an already bad situation. … Suzy insisted on running the race with an

    sprained ankle despite her coach repeatedly explaining how it would exacerbate the injury. 


    1. feign (v) - to pretend, fake or give a false impression … He was feigning interest throughout the boring lecture

    Johnnie will often feign illness to avoid doing his chores…    a noun generally follows the word feignfeign

               injury… feign surprise… feign excitement.... feign appreciation… feign disappointment.... an opossum will feign death.



    1. fickle (adj) -- erratic or changeable, especially in affections; inconstant; capriciousMany sports fans are

    known for being fickle: As soon as their team starts losing, they jump off of the bandwagon.



    1. haggard (adj) -- having a tired or worn-out look (generally refers to a person) …



    1. indispensable (adj) - absolutely necessary or required (opposite of dispensable)



    1. pungent (adj) – having a sharp taste or smell (often not pleasant)



    1. nebulous (adj) – unclear, vague … That event happened so long ago that my memory of it is rather nebulous.



    1. palpable (adj) -- seemingly capable of being felt or touched … the excitement was palpable… the tension

    was palpable…  a palpable sense of loss…   The excitement before the first game was palpable.


            tangibleliterally capable of being touched … Before we can arrest Billy and Johnny, we need some tangible

    evidence that would indicate they committed the crime. 


    1. peruse (v) – to read or examine (often in detail)


    1. precarious (adj) – dangerously lacking in stability; unsteady (adverb – precariously)


    1. preposterous (adj) – contrary to reason or common sense; absurd; ludicrous


    1. fabricate (v) – 1.) to create or invent; 2.) to construct … There is simply no way I can believe your story. It is

    so far-fetched that I can only guess you fabricated it on the way to my classroom.  



    1. redundant (adj) -- using more words than necessary; repetitive; superfluous – extra; surplus

                Ex. -- The winless team did not win a game… The frigid air was extremely cold… Will you please

    meet me at 6 a.m. in the morning? … I don’t believe you; that sounds like a fabricated lie.


    1. prudent (adj) – wise in practical matters; marked by wisdom (prudence – noun)



    1. procure (v) – to get or obtain through hard work or special effort


    1. pundit (n) - a learned person; an authority; an expertNone of the pundits expected Trump to win the nomination.


    1. kowtow (v) – 1.) to behave in an extremely submissive way in order to please somebody in a

    position of authority; to kiss-up to someone or to suck-up to someone   2.) formerly, in China, to kneel and

    touch the forehead to the ground in order to show respect, awe, or submission


    1. contrite (adj) -- sorrowful or remorseful for some wrongdoing; deeply repentant… Frankie’s apology was so

    contrite that the coach felt compelled to only suspend the player for a week instead of dismissing him from

    the team as originally planned.  (contrition – noun)  … Lonnie showed absolutely no contrition yesterday,

    so everyone had a difficult time believing that he was actually sorry.


    1. oppressed (adj) – kept down by unjust use or force of authority (noun – oppression) … In the 1900’s and

    even today, workers in factories often endure oppressive working conditions. As a result, they often fell

    oppressed. and this oppression can often have unrelated consequences.



    1. remnants (n) - what is left over; remainders… After my brother invaded the kitchen, there were just remnants of the fried chicken.



    1. rendezvous (n/v) – meeting of two or more people



    1. ruse (n) – a trick (not to be used as a verb)



    1. confer (v) – to come together to discuss or talk about; to consult with others (conference – noun)



    1. tact (n) -- sensitivity in dealing with others (tactful – adjective)



    1. obstinate (adj) -- stubborn; clinging to an attitude or opinion in spite of reason
    2. adamant (adj) -- deeply or strongly felt; intensely, emotionally or passionately felt

            vehement (adj – extremely adamant

    Johnny vehemently denied he had anything to do with the disappearance of Grain Vault’s frontman.


    1. refute (v)- to prove to be false or erroneous (refutation – noun)


    1. neophyte (n)- a beginner or novice Pregunta: What does the prefix “neo” mean?

                Billy is a neophyte when it comes to playing chess, so let’s not make fun of him quite yet.


    1. tirade (n) -- a long, passionate speech, especially one that is critical; rant; diatribe (diatribe is probably a

    little stronger term than tirade or rant)


    1. complacent (adj) -- self-satisfied, usually without being aware of possible dangers; (over confident or




    1. plethora (adj) -- an abundance of; an excess of; myriad; innumerable – both myriad and innumerable mean

    “many” or “countless” – Frankie had myriad chances to make up the test, but he chose not to do so.

    Frankie had innumerable chances to make up the test, but he chose not to do so.

                BUT… Johnny had a plethora of chances to make up the test, but he chose not to do so.



    1. vindictive (adj) -- revengeful; spiteful; intended to cause anguish or hurt


    1. vindicate (v) -- to clear from criticism, blame, guilt, suspicion (noun – vindication)


    1. accost (v) -- to approach and speak to in an aggressive or hostile manner


    1. loquacious (adj) -- very talkative; garrulous




    1. composure (n)calm and steady control over the emotions … If you are smart, then you will learn how to

    maintain your composure…. Failure to keep your composure will likely lead to arguments and fights.

    (adjective – composed)  Franklin is one of the more composed individuals I have ever met.


    1. distraught (adj) – extremely upset and distressed; despondent


    1. facetious (adj) -- not meant seriously; playful or humorous (adverb – facetiously)


    1. retort (v) – to make a reply, often sharply, angrily or wittily (the noun is also retort)



    1. vex (v) -- to confuse to the point of being annoying or bothered (vexation – noun, vexing – adjective)

                -- don’t confuse “vex” with bewilder, perplex, baffle, confound, and befuddle OR with irk & perturb


    1. former (n) -- the first of two persons or things mentioned

            latter (n) -- the second of two persons or things mentioned


    1. etymology (n) -- the origin of a word and the historical development of its meaning

                -- don’t confuse “etymology” with “entomology” which is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of insects


    1. awry (adv or adj) -- wrong; amiss … Our plans went awry when my brother came home early.



    1. forte (n) -- something in which a person excels; a strong point; a specialty Sewing is one of Billy’s many

    fortes, so he would be happy to mend your torn sweater.


    Pregunta: What is the opposite of forte?   See me for a potentially surprising answer.



    1. ominous (adj) – being or showing a sign of evil or misfortune to come


    1. je ne sais quoi – a French term that means a pleasant quality that cannot be described or named easily; an

    indefinable, elusive quality, especially a pleasing one     


    1. plunder (v) – to loot or rob of property, often by force; to pillage (or pilfer) Pirates were notorious for their

    pillaging of the areas they invaded.   


    1. scorn (n/v) – contempt or disdain; derision

            scornful (adj) – full of contempt or disdain (hatred/anger); derisive

                            Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned.



           derision (n) – an expression of ridicule or contempt (verb – deride)


           contemptuous (adj) – feeling, expressing, or demonstrating a strong dislike or utter lack of respect for

    somebody or something  

           contempt (n) – 1.) disparaging or haughty disdain; scorn … “Familiarity breeds contempt” is a well-known


     2.) open disrespect or willful disobedience of the authority of a court of law … If people in a courtroom

    don’t behave, the judge will be forced to “hold them in contempt,” often resulting in that individual

    being punished.


    1. clandestine (adj) – concealed for the purpose of deception; secretive; covert


    1. stealthy (adj) -- moving, proceeding, or acting in a covert way; quiet and sneaky; furtive


    1. usurp (v) – to seize and hold by force without legal authority; to confiscate; to commandeer



    1. confide (v) -- to tell (something) in confidence  confidant (n) - a person with whom one shares a secret or

    private matter, trusting them not to repeat it to others  


    1. implore (v) -- to beg or beseech; to ask earnestly or beg somebody to do something; to plead


    1. antebellum (adj) – belonging or relating to the time before the Civil War (or any war)


                Pregunta: What does the prefix “ante” mean?  -- “anti” is an entirely different prefix


    1. double entendre (n) -- a word or phrase having a double meaning, especially when one meaning is risqué


    1. risqué (adj) -- slightly indecent or liable to shock, especially by being sexually suggestive; racyThat

    novel includes material that is too risqué (or racy) to be read by middle schoolers.


    1. refrain (v) -- to keep from doing or indulging in … Unless you want to live your life somewhere in a gutter,

    you should refrain from doing crack rock.    … In music, the refrain is the chorus of a song


    1. enthrall (v) – to hold spell-bound or to fascinate; to captivate or mesmerize (enthralling – adj)


    1. touche (interj) -- used to acknowledge a successful criticism in an argument (or a “hit” in fencing)


    1. patronize (v) -- 1.) to treat in a condescending manner

    2.) to go to as a customer, especially on a regular basis  (patron – noun)


            condescending (adj) -- behaving toward other people in a belittling way that shows you consider

       yourself socially or intelligently superior to them


    1. faux (adj) – fake or false; made in imitation; artificial; not genuine… Her faux pearls made her look more

    affluent than she actually was.  


    1. faux pas (n) – a social blunder … Picking your nose in public is a faux pas I would rather not commit.


    1. cynical (adj) – critical and distrustful of human nature and motives (cynic (n) – a person who is cynical)

                (cynicism (n) – the act of being cynical)


    1. defiant (adj.) – deliberately and openly disobedient; tending to confront and challenge

    (noun – defiance; verb – defy)


    1. quid pro quo (n) – something given or done in exchange for something else


    1. segue (n/v) -- a smooth transition from one situation or element to another … That is a good question you

    asked and will serve as a perfect segue (noun) into our next topic…  That question will allow us to segue

    (verb) into the next subject.


    1. jettison (v) – to discard or abandon something; to throw something from a ship, aircraft, or vehicle

                Perhaps we should jettison our backpacks, so we can run even faster.

    1. inclement (adj) – stormy… Due to inclement weather, the game will be postponed.


    1. scapegoat (n) -- a person who bears the blame for others (occasionally for something they

    are not responsible for)           Pregunta: What is the history of the word “scapegoat”?        


    1. catnap – a short, light nap (from a cat’s habit of sleeping lightly during the day)


    1. queue (n) -- a line of waiting people or vehicles (v) -- to get in line

            query (n) – a question or inquiry (inquiry is the noun for the verb inquire)

                -- these two words are very British terms that are, nonetheless, still used in America, especially query


    1. persona non grata (n) -- somebody who is not accepted or welcome (as a diplomat to the authorities of a

    country to which he or she is sent)  … Ever since Billy stole money from my mother’s purse, he has been

    considered persona non grata at our house.  


    1. tranquil (adj) -- calm; serene; placid; peaceful free from disturbance (tranquility & serenity – nouns)


    1. fortnight (n) -- a period of 14 days; two weeks … The Wimbledon tennis tournament lasts a fortnight.


    1. pedestrian (adj) -- dull; ordinary; mediocre; prosaicThat meal wasn’t the worst, but it was rather pedestrian.

                -- prosaic is not really used that much, but you will likely encounter it in writing at least seven times in

    your life, so would it kill you to learn it? I think not. Remember: “p” for pedestrian & “p” for prosaic.  



    1. prostrate (adj) – lying flat on the ground, generally face down -- not to be confused with prostate



    1. repercussion (n) -- an effect of an event or action; a consequence; a ramificationWhen you make poor choices, such as skipping my class, please know that there will be repercussions for your foolish actions.

                            -- Remember: “r” for repercussion and “r” for ramification


    1. raze (v) -- to level to the ground; to tear down completely; to demolish (a structure) … Instead of razing the old Forest High School, the decision was made to refurbish the buildings and turn it into MTI.

                            -- raze is the opposite of raise; think of a “razor”


    1. indifferent (adj) -- having no choice or preference (noun – indifference)

    Your complete indifference will get you nowhere in life.



    1. nonchalant (adj) -- seeming to be unconcerned or indifferent, often regarding matters that should be

    considered important; having an overly confident and easy manner… His nonchalance was evident from the outset and perhaps cost us the game.


    1. liberate (v) -- to set free (liberation – noun)


    1. outstanding (adj) -- not settled; not resolved… We still have some outstanding business that needs to be

    resolved before you leave for the weekend…. You have outstanding debt that needs to be repaid before you


    1. collaborate (v) -- to work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort (collaboration – noun)

            conspire (v) -- to work together secretly to commit an illegal act  (conspiracy – noun)



    1. rapport (n) -- a relationship, especially one of mutual trust or affinity

            affinity (n) – 1.) a natural attraction to someone or something;  2.) a relationship by marriage



    1. novel (adj) -- strikingly new, unusual or different (novelty – noun)

                If what you are doing in life is not working, perhaps you should take a novel approach.


            novella (n) -- a short novel



    1. hinder & impede (v) – to be or get in the way of; to obstruct the progress of or delay

                (nouns – hindrance & impediment)   


    1. epiphany (n) -- an intuitive grasp of reality through something (as an event) usually simple and

    striking; a revelation


    1. cope (v) – to deal with … We all need to learn how to cope with our problems.


    1. intriguing (adj)- extremely interesting; fascinating; captivating (noun – intrigue)


    1. compensate (v) -- 1.) to make up for; 2.) to pay somebody for work done or for something lost

    (compensation – noun)



    1. thespian (n) -- an actor or actress … Since Mikayla is so dramatic about everything, it would make sense for

    her to join the thespian club.

    1. soiree & shindig (n) -- an evening party or social gathering
    2. parched (adj) -- hot and thirsty; dried up… Those plants are parched and are in dire need of some agua.



    1. score (n) – 1.) a group of twenty; 2.) a written form of a musical composition

                Four score and seven years ago…

                There were several fatalities and scores of injuries in the train wreck.



    1. perhaps (adv) – maybe … Perhaps we will change our plans and attend the game.


    1. long (v) -- to have a strong desire or craving for someone or something; yearn or crave



    1. objective (adj) -- uninfluenced by emotions or personal prejudices; fair & unbiased      (noun – objectivity)

    (n) – something worked toward or striven for; a goal


    1. subjective (adj) -- based somewhat on opinions or feelings rather than on facts or evidence; open to

    interpretation    (noun -- subjectivity)


    1. prominent (adj)- 1.) readily noticeable or standing out; 2) widely and popularly known (prominently- adv) …

    Suzy has a prominent stain on her dress and should have it removed prior to wearing it to the wedding…

    Nobody can see the sign where you hung it, so please move it to a more prominent location.

    1. repertoire (n) -- the range of skills or abilities of a person or group


    1. formidable (adj) -- arousing fear, dread or awe; difficult to overcome or conquer


    1. fortitude (n) -- strength of mind that allows one to endure pain or adversity with courage


    1. thrive (v) – to do extremely well; to prosper; to flourish


    1. squander (v) -- to spend or use unwisely; to waste … Billy squandered all of his money and all of his chances.


    1. linger (v) -- to be slow in leaving; to remain or stay around for a period of time



    1. hearth (n) – 1.) the floor of a fireplace, usually extending into a room   2.) family life; the home



    1. sympathy (n) -- a feeling or expression of pity or sorrow for the distress of another (verb – sympathize)


            empathy (n) -- identification with and understanding of another’s situation or feelings (often indicates the

         person has experienced something similar or otherwise has a deep understanding of the situation) (v-empathize)


    1. utilize (v) -- to put to use… In order to be successful, we need to utilize all of the skills in our repertoire.

                            (noun – utilization)


    1. skeptical (adj) -- not easily persuaded or convinced; doubting (nouns – skeptic & skepticism)



    1. fret (v) -- to worry … Don’t fret; we will have plenty of fun in here.



    1. galore (adj) -- in great numbers; in abundance … generally you use a noun and then galore.

     There were Butterfingers galore at the party. In your essay, you made mistakes galore.



    1. genuine (adj) -- real; sincere, authentic (a genuine apology); not counterfeit; actually possessing the

    alleged or apparent attribute or character (genuine leather)


    1. gist (n) -- the main idea, the point … I missed the meeting, so please tell me the gist of what was said.


    1. tedious (adj) -- tiresomely long or dull; boring (generally describes something specific – a tedious chore,

    tedious assignments)

            monotonous (adj) – uninteresting or boring as a result of being repetitive and unvaried monotony

                             (usually describes something in more general terms – His job is so monotonous… The monotony of his job…


    1. finale (n) – an event that is the last or climactic event in a series… the grand finale, the season finale
    2. irrelevant (adj)-- not relevant or not related to the subject; not to the point; not pertinent; not germane



    1. inexplicable (adj) -- impossible to explain or account for (inexplicably – adverb)



    1. infallible (adj) -- incapable of making a mistake; incapable of failing (noun – infallibility)



    1. regress (v) -- to return to a previous or worse state or condition; the opposite of progress (noun – regression)



    1. melee (n) – a rough & noisy fight involving a large number of people; a brawl



    1. compel (v) -- to force or feel forced; to cause to do something


    1. avaricious (adj) -- greedy; marked by an insatiable desire for wealth; (avarice – noun)


    1. dishearten (v) - to deprive of courage and hope


    1. rescind (v) -- to repeal or annul; to take back, remove or cancel… If you continue to take advantage of me, I

    will forced to rescind your class’ privileges. … Johnnie rescinded his offer, so you will have to look for

    other employment opportunities. 


    1. renege (v) to go back on a promise, undertaking, or contract … The Donald reneged on the Iran nuclear deal,

    causing much consternation from the international community. … The teacher likely will renege his offer of

    credit extra if we don’t start paying attention in class.


    1. diminutive (adj) -- extremely small; tiny (generally refers to the size of a person/animal/thing & not an amount)



    1. distraught (adj) – extremely upset and distressed


    1. eavesdrop (v) -- to listen secretly to a private conversation



    1. endure (v) -- to continue on despite hardships; to suffer through something



    1. enhance (v) -- to make something better by adding to it or improving it



    1. epitaph (n) -- a written inscription on a tombstone

            eulogy (n) -- a written or spoken tribute praising someone who has died   (verb – eulogize)


    1. vulnerable (adj) – open or susceptible to physical or emotional attack or harm… If we are smart we will

    attack the enemy’s fort where they are most vulnerable. 



    1. ignorant (adj)- lacking in education or knowledge; unaware or uninformed (doesn’t mean stupid)

                Perhaps you have heard the phrase, “Ignorance is bliss.”


    1. buffoon (n) -- a clown; someone who amuses with tricks and jokes (generally has a negative connotation)



    1. callous (adj) -- insensitive; showing no concern or sympathy for others; harsh, rough (think of a callus on

    your hands being rough) … I know Jimmy acts like the most callous boss we have ever had, but he actually

    cares deeply about all of his employees.  


    1. ponder (v) -- to think intently about; to mullIn the coming weeks, we will mull over that plan.

            contemplate (v) – 1.) to think intently about;     2.) to consider   (noun – contemplation)


    1. nepotism (n) -- favoritism (often unjust) to relatives



    1. in lieu of (prep) -- in place of; instead of … Let’s play a game in lieu of failing this test.



    1. asinine (adj) -- stupid; downright absurd; resembling a horse’s behind


    1. transparent (adj) -- clear or see through (can be literal or metaphorical) (noun – transparency)

                Most company policies call for complete transparency by allowing the media full access to company files.

                You will be suspended if you wear transparent clothing to school.

                Joe’s motives were so transparent that everyone in the class knew he was simply sucking-up to the teacher.



    1. notorious (adj) – known widely and usually unfavorably; infamous

    (noun -- notoriety – while notorious (and infamous) almost exclusively have a negative

    connotation, notoriety can be used for something good or bad. (Good – That band gained their

    notoriety with the release of the second album in 2014.)

            infamous (adj) – having a reputation of the worst kind; causing or bringing infamy or disgrace


    1. apropos (adj) – appropriate in a particular situation; fitting … Since Suzy has been tardy so many times this

    year, it will be apropos for her to be late for the final exam.


    1. relinquish (v) – to surrender or let go of… The Gators took the lead against FSU and never relinquished it.


    1. ambivalent (adj) – having mixed, uncertain, or conflicted feelings about something or someone

    (noun – ambivalence) … Your ambivalence toward this important topic is driving crazy: One second you

    act like it’s a terrible idea and the next it appears as if you love it.


    1. condone (v) -- to overlook, forgive or disregard (an offense), especially to treat as if trivial, harmless or

    of no importance… Some teachers may condone the use of texting machines in class, but he does not.


    1. fiancé (n) -- a man who is engaged

            fiancée (n) -- a woman who is engaged


    1. revere (v) -- to regard with deep respect and devotion (adj – reverent… the reverend is quite reverent)

               reverie (n) -- a state of abstracted musing; a daydream



    1. albeit (conj) – although… He was making progress, albeit rather slowly…. He did turn in the

    assignment, albeit three weeks late.


    1. coup (n) -- a brilliant, sudden and usually a highly successful act, maneuver, or strategy; also short for

    coup d’etat  It would be a coup if we could somehow encourage Billy Franklin to take a teaching job at

    our school.   (don’t confuse coup with coupe, which is a two-door vehicle)


    1. coup d’etat (n) -- a sudden decisive exercise of force in politics, especially the violent overthrow or

    alteration of an existing government by a small group   The dictator sensed a coup d’etat in progress, so he

    quickly retaliated against anyone he deemed remotely threatening. 

    1. coup de grace (n) -- a decisive finishing blow, act or event; the “last straw” Johnny endured his girlfriend’s

              evil ways for months, but the coup de grace was when she lied to his face so he decided to break up with her.


    1. crucible (n) – a container or vessel made of a substance that can withstand extreme heat; a severe trial or test
    2. modus operandi (n) -- a particular way of doing things; a method of operating or functioning (Latin for

    mode or method of operating. This term is often shortened to the letters M.O.)

    1. incognito (adv & adj) -- 1. one whose identity is disguised or concealed
    2. (n) -- the condition of having a disguised or concealed identity


    1. a la (prep)-- in the style or manner of Ex: write a poem a la Robert Frost; dunk a la Lebron James


    1. --esque (suffix) -- in the manner of; resembling Ex: picturesque, a Robert Frost-esque poem; a Lebron

    James-esque dunk)


    1. --ette (suffix) –1.) small, diminutive... kitchenette, cigarette, statuette

    2.) female… majorette, bachelorette, suffragette


    1. carte blanche (n) – unrestricted authority or freedom to do whatever you choose
    2. swan song (n) – 1.) a final appearance, performance, or work as a farewell to a career or profession

                   2.) a song of legendary beauty said to be sung only once by a swan during its lifetime, when it is dying


    1. en route (adv & adj) – on the way or along the way … We are en route and will be there in 15 minutes.


    1. pro bono (adv) – done for the public good without any payment or compensation
    2. posthumous (adj) -- occurring or continuing after one’s death; published after the writer’s death Ernest

    Hemingway won several posthumous awards in the 1960’s. … (adverb – posthumously)   A few of his

    novels were posthumously published.



    1. flora (n) – plants (or flowers), especially of a particular region or time (think “fl” for flower and “fl” for flora)
      fauna (n) -- animals, especially of a particular region or time (think “fawn” for fauna; a fawn is a young deer)



    1. mea culpa (n) – a formal apology or acknowledgment of responsibility or guilt


    1. catharsis (n) -- a purging of the emotions; an experience or feeling of spiritual release and purification

    brought about by an intense emotional experience   adj.—cathartic



    1. façade (n) - 1) the face of a building, usually given special architectural treatment; 2) a false, superficial or

             artificial appearance   Ex: His over-the-top displays of bravado are just a façade for his true feelings of inferiority. 



    1. galvanize (v) – 1.) to arouse or spur to action or awareness; to spark or ignite in a figurative manner

                The football squad has lost three consecutive games, but the coach is hoping that the quarterback’s return

    from injury will galvanize the team and stop their losing streak.

    2.) to stimulate or shock with an electric current  3.) to coat w/ a protective layer of zinc



    1. hark (v) -- to listen attentively (old-fashioned term, often used in Britain)… Hark! The herald angels sing…


    1. lackey (n) – an obedient follower; somebody excessively willing to obey another’s orders; a minionBilly

    basically has turned into the teacher’s lackey in an attempt to gain favor. 



    1. pang (n) -- a sudden, sharp twinge of pain or distress (a hunger pang)



    1. opine (v) – to hold and state as one's opinion; opine is the verb form of the noun opinion … The governor

    opined for thirty minutes on the progress of his administration. …  Because some doctors opine red wine is

    good for the heart, my grandmother enjoys several glasses of wine each day.



    1. expletive (n) – a swear word, obscenity, or profanityJohnny was expelled for shouting expletives at his teacher.



    1. abdicate (v) – to relinquish (power or responsibility) formally… The king abdicated the throne in 1936.

                (noun – abdication)



    1. escalate (v) -- to increase or intensify… Johnny was calm at first, but the situation escalated rather quickly,

    and eventually he was arrested for his unruly behavior… (Remember: escalators go up)


    1. reservation (n) -- a doubt; … While many students voiced reservations about the new schedule, the teachers

    unanimously support it.


    1. poignant (adj) -- profoundly moving; touching… That was such a poignant anecdote that virtually

    everyone in the room was teary eyed.



    1. emulate (v) – to imitate the style of, generally with the purpose of doing something equally well or even

    better than the original  … If you are not happy with yourself, then perhaps try emulating someone you

    admire. … For Paper 1 on the AICE English Language exam, you must learn how to emulate the style and language of a writer.


    1. liberal (adj) – 1. open to new behavior or opinions and willing to discard traditional values… They

    have more liberal views toward marriage and divorce than some people.

    1. (of education) concerned mainly with broadening a person's general knowledge and

    experience, rather than with technical or professional training… a liberal arts degree



    1. exempt (adj) – to be freed or released from some requirement to which others are subject… Since

       he was absent last week due to the death of Chewy, Johnny is exempt from this week’s exam.

    (noun – exemption)



    1. comprehensive (adj) -- including everything so as to be complete; covering many things or a wide area

                The semester exam in that class will be comprehensive, meaning it will include everything covered in class

    from week one until December. 



    1. vet (v) -- to appraise, verify, or check for accuracy, authenticity, validity… It is essential that companies

    thoroughly vet their employees before hiring them.


    1. superficial (adj) -- shallow; of or relating to the surface (superficial does not mean artificial)… Since it was

    such a superficial wound, Frankie didn’t even need stitches… Most people’s conversations don’t

    have much substance and are rather superficial. 


    1. acquiesce (v) -- to consent or comply without protest… Billy didn’t want to anger his mother further, so he

    eventually acquiesced and did his chores.


    1. bigot (n) -- a person who is intolerant toward those holding different opinions... Don’t let a few small-minded bigots

    destroy the good image of our country.  (noun – bigotry)


    1. irreparable (of an injury or loss) impossible to rectify or repair; irreversible; irrevocable… My grandmother

    stopped taking certain medication last month because it was doing irreparable damage to her heart and

    lungsSometimes bad choices can be rectified; other times the consequences are irreparable.



    1. stagnant (adj) -- not moving or flowing… Grain Vault hasn’t produced any new music in more than a

    year, so I guess you could say their career is stagnant.



    1. stamina (n) -- the ability to sustain prolonged physical or mental effort; endurance… Since soccer players

    run virtually the entire game, it is imperative that they build up their stamina if they are going to be

    effective late in the game… Most AICE exams are two hours long, so you need to have enough stamina to

    write effectively and legibly for that length of time.



    1. net (adj) – [usually used before noun]-- anet amount of money is the amount that remains when nothing

    more is to be taken away, such as taxes or expenses…. After expenses, we made a net profit of

    $525. … Net can also be used as a verb -- I only netted $123 after taxes were taken out. 



    1. gross (adj) – the total amount of money earned (before taxes or expenses are deducted) His gross

           income is at an all-time high… Can also be used a verb – The restaurant grossed $4,100 last night.



    1. placebo (n) -- a harmless pill, medicine, or procedure prescribed more for the psychological

    benefit to the patient than for any physiological effect… His aunt Suzy had been kept

    alive on sympathy and placebos for thirty years.


    1. revert (v) -- to return to a previous or worse state, condition, or practice… If Johnny is not careful with

    whom he hangs around, then he likely will revert to his previous lifestyle.  (noun -- reversion)


    1. trepidation (n) -- a feeling of fear or agitation about something that may happen; apprehension or

    hesitation…  After much trepidation, we finally decided to enter the cave.



    1. gait (n) -- a manner or rate of movement on foot; a sequence of foot movements (often used to refer to a

            horse’s gait)… I can tell that Billy’s foot still hurts because his gait continues to look a little awkward. 


    1. versatile (adj) -- able to adapt to many different functions, tasks or activities… Kurt Vonnegut is a

    versatile author, as he has written in a wide-range of genres… Mr. Jordan played virtually all positions on

    his high school baseball squad; as a result, he won the award for the “Most Versatile Player” on the team.

    (noun – versatility)



    1. conventional (adj) – normal; standard; traditional… Even though his teaching style is a little

    unconventional, he cares deeply about all of the students.



    1. sobriquet (n) -- a person’s nicknameBaseball player Ty Cobb was also known by thesobriquet “The

    Georgia Peach.”    



    1. cognizant (adj) -- having conscious knowledge of or an awareness of … When driving, Billy needs to be

    more cognizant of his surroundings; otherwise, he will undoubtedly get in an accident soon.


    1. boondoggle (n) -- work or activity that is wasteful or pointless but gives the appearance of having value…

    Typically when I go to Chicago for my job, I actually have to work, but this time it’s essentially a

    boondoggle. We get to play golf every day and only have to attend meetings for two hours a day.


    1. compulsory (adj) – required by law or a rule; obligatory; mandatory… Essay question number one is

    compulsory for all candidates, but they have the choice of doing either number two or three…. The usage is

    slightly different with the word “imperative” (see word #73)



    1. transpire (v) – to happen or occur… Before we ground Billy, we should do our best to ascertain exactly

    what transpired yesterday afternoon. We don’t want to assume anything.  



    1. ascertain (v) -- to learn or discover with certainty … See example above


    1. frank (adj) -- open and sincere in expression; straightforward; candid

                If you want me to be completely frank (or candid), your work is terrible, and I’m on the verge of firing you.

                candid can also refer to a photograph of a person taken informally, often without the subject's knowledge



    1. exodus (n) -- a departure involving large numbers of people … The nasty smell in the kitchen led to a mass

    exodus of the employees.

            genesis (adj) – the beginning or origin of something … Your inappropriate actions last year in 5th period

    were the genesis of your problems in school.



    1. obscure (adj) – something or someone that is not very well-known (an obscure fact; an obscure writer);

    esoteric Trivia games often include such obscure (esoteric) information that very few people know the


               (v) – to block the vision of or get in the way of … Please remove the plant on the counter as it’s obscuring

    my view of the swimming pool.


    1. recluse (n) – somebody who lives alone and deliberately keeps away from other people (adj – reclusive) …

    Harper Lee, the author of To Kill a Mockingbird, lived much of her life as a recluse.  … Frankie Franklin’s

    reclusive lifestyle meant there weren’t many people who knew him well.



    1. fathom 1.) (v) -- to comprehend; 2) a unit of length equivalent to six feet, used principally in the

    measurement of marine depths … It is difficult for me to fathom how someone could fail this class if they

    are just somewhat organized, focused, and dedicated. 



    1. crestfallen (adj.) – disappointed or devastated, especially after being enthusiastic or confident … Billy was

    certain he would be offered the job and became crestfallen when the position was given to someone else.


    1. propensity (n) – a tendency or natural inclination… Billy has a propensity to cheat on his vocabulary tests.


    1. voila -- there it is; there you are… “Voila!” she said, producing a pair of stylish white sandals.


    1. synthesize – 1) to gather information from different sources and use it to reach a new conclusion

                            2) to combine materials in order to create something, such as a product


    1. caveat (n) -- a warning or caution; a condition attached to an agreement … That deal sounds pretty good, but

    just be careful because there are often caveats in situations like that. … Yes, you may attend the concert,

    but there are a few caveats we must discuss prior to your departure.


    1. innate (adj) – 1.) relating to qualities that a person or animal is born with 2.) forming an

    integral part of something  3.) coming directly from the mind rather than being acquired by

    experience or from external sources


    1. excerpt (n) -- a short extract (section) from a film, broadcast, or piece of music or writing


    1. lexicon (n) -- the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge


    1. shoddy (adj) -- poorly made or done


    1. conform (v) – to comply with rules, standards, or laws; to behave according to socially acceptable

    conventions or standards…  The kitchen does not conform to hygiene regulations. … Even if you don’t want

    to do so, it probably is a good idea to conform to the majority of society’s rules and expectations.


    1. conventions (n) – 1) a way in which something is usually done, especially within a particular area or activity

    She is the woman who overturned so many conventions of children's literature.

    2) behavior that is considered acceptable or polite to most members of a society


    1. vanguard (n) -- a group of people leading the way in new developments or ideas; the foremost or leading

    position in a trend or movement… Their innovative ideas are in the vanguard of technical development.


    1. providence (n) -- the protective care of God or of nature as a spiritual power… They found their trust in

    divine providence to be a source of comfort.


    1. reputable (adj) – having a good reputation… That company is more reputable than the one you are using, so

    it’s probably worth spending the extra money because they are more likely to get the job done correctly.


    1. mire (v) – to cause to become stuck (literally or figuratively); to be bogged down or overwhelmed … literal

              mire -- Johnny’s mule-drawn carriage got mired in the muddy field. … figurative mire – About a decade

              ago, the country was mired in its longest recession since the 1940’s.    mire (n) – a swampy or boggy ground


    1. contentious (adj) – causing or likely to cause a heated argument because of its controversial nature … The

    teacher did his best to direct the discussion away from that point because he knew how contentious it might



    1. discrepancy (n) -- a lack of compatibility or similarity between two or more facts; an inconsistency …

    There's a discrepancy between your account and his, so we will have to investigate this matter further.


    1. disparity (n) – a great difference; a lack of similarity or equality … There is a tremendous disparity between

    the salaries of men and women’s professional tennis players.  


    1. prevalent (adj) – widespread in a particular area at a particular time. … Cheating has become so prevalent

    that many students now see it as no big deal. 


    1. retaliate (v) – to respond or get back at someone for something that they did … Suzy’s comments stung, so

    Billy retaliated immediately.


    1. miff (v) – to annoy or offend … She was slightly miffed at not being invited to the soiree, especially since she

    is such good friends with the host.


    1. negligible (adj) – so small or unimportant as to be not worth considering; insignificant. … Since the price

    difference between the generic item and the brand item was negligible, Lonnie chose to purchase the brand

    product. … Because Frankie lost only a negligible amount of weight, he sent the product back for a refund.

    … While it appeared we were stuck in travel for hours, the time was negligible and only delayed our

    arrival by fifteen minutes.  


    1. eloquent (adj) -- marked by fluent expression; vividly or movingly expressive… That was truly one of the

    more eloquent speeches I have ever heard. … The valedictorian’s eloquent words brought the audience to

    its feet. … an eloquent response.  


    1. liaison (n) – someone or something that facilitates a close working relationship between people or

    organizations. … Johnny Johnson serves as the liaison for the U.S. embassy in China. …  Suzy Smith acts

    as a liaison between the police department and city schools.


    1. enigma (n) -- a person or thing that is mysterious, puzzling, or difficult to explain … Billy’s recent behavior

    has made him more of an enigma than ever before: One day he is a kind, generous individual, and the next

    day he is robbing jiffy stores and stealing from the elderly. (adjective – enigmatic … Billy is more

    enigmatic than anyone I’ve ever met.)


    1. inordinate (adj) -- unusually or disproportionately large… This is a case that has taken up an inordinate

    amount of time. … Your essay had an inordinate number of mistakes that easily could have been remedied

    had you simply edited your work. … (verb – purport)


    1. purported (adj) – alleged; saidby some peopleto be real or true, but not proved to be real or trueWe

    saw no evidence of his purported wealth. …  The guides took gullible tourists to purported ancient

    sites. (adverb – purportedly … Billy purportedly was involved in a drug ring for more than 20 years before becoming a pastor. 


    1. disparage (v) -- to speak of in a slighting, harshly critical, or disrespectful manner … It is probably not a

    good idea to publicly disparage your teacher or boss. (disparaging – adj.)


            derogatory (adj.) -- showing a critical or disrespectful attitude; disparaging … It is probably not a good idea

    to publicly make derogatory comments about your teacher or boss. (derogate – verb… this is not used

    often; use the verb disparage) 


    1. shan’t – old-fashioned contraction for shall not; sometimes is written without the apostrophe … I apologize

    for being tardy to the meeting; I shan’t be late again.  (Do not use shan’t in your writing, but it is mighty

    fun to say in conversation. Go ahead, try it.)


    1. penultimate (adj) -- next to last… This is the penultimate word on the list.


    1. crème de la crème (n) – the very best of a group of people or things; the “cream of the crop”… If you have

    read this far and have actually studied all of these words, then you are crème de la crème.