• Unit 1 Vocabulary 


    Columbian Exchange- Exchanges of plants, animals, diseases and technology transformed European and Native American ways of life. 

    Conquistador- a conqueror, especially one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century. 

    Plantation- an estate on which crops such as coffee, sugar, and tobacco are cultivated by resident labor 

    Middle Passage- the sea journey undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to the West Indies. 

    Northwest Passage- A sea route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean through northwestern America, often sought by early explorers 



    Unit 2 Vocab 

    Jamestown- the first permanent English settlement in North America 

    Indentured Servants- people who signed a contract to work for 4 to 7 years for those who paid for their journey to America 

    John Smithwas an English adventurer, soldier, explorer, and author. He is famous for his role in the survival of Jamestown. 

    Mercantilism- belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism 

    Bacon’s Rebellion- the first rebellion in the American Colonies. (Jamestown) 

    Pocahontas- a Native American woman known for her association with the colonial settlement at Jamestown 

    John Winthrop- Leading figure in the forming of the Massachusetts Bay Colony 

    Mayflower Compact- the first governing document in the Massachusetts Bay Colony written by the male passengers on the Mayflower 

    Puritans- a Protestant group that wanted to purify, or reform, the Anglican Church 

    Town Meetings- In town meetings people talked about and decided on issues of local interest, such as paying for schools 

    Charter- an official document granting permission to settle an area or establish a government 

    Colony- a country or area under the full or partial political control of another country 

    House of Burgesses- first official representative legislative government in the 13 colonies 

    Ft. Mose-  (Florida) Established in 1738, Fort Mose was the first free black settlement in what is now the United States



    Unit 3 Vocab 

    Stamp Act of 1765- This law required colonists to pay for an official seal, when they bought paper items 

    Boston Massacre- shooting in Boston by English soldiers against colonists 

    Boston Tea Party- disguised as Indians, colonists snuck aboard three tea filled ships and dumped over 340 tea chests into Boston Harbor 

    Intolerable Acts- several laws passed by England that angered many colonists 

    Quartering Act- required colonists to let British soldiers live in their houses 

     First Continental Congress (1774)- a meeting of colonial delegates in Philadelphia to decide how to respond to the closing of Boston Harbor, increased taxes, and abuses of authority by the British government; delegates petitioned King George III, listing the freedoms they believed colonists should enjoy  

    Patriots- American colonists who fought for independence from Great Britain during the Revolutionary War  

    Loyalists- colonists who sided with Britain in the American Revolution  

    Minutemen- American colonial militia members ready to fight at a minute’s notices 

    Common Sense (1776)-a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain 

    Battles of Lexington and Concord (1775)- first actual battles of the American Revolution. 

    Battle of Trenton (1776)-a Revolutionary War battle in New Jersey in which Patriot forces captured more than 900 Hessian troops  

    Battle of Saratoga (1777)-a Revolutionary War battle in New York that resulted in a major defeat of British troops; convinced France and Spain to help 

    Battle of Yorktown (1781)- the last major battle of the Revolutionary War; site of British general Charles Cornwallis’s surrender to the Patriots in Virginia


    Unit 4 Vocab 

    Constitution a set of basic principles that determines the powers and duties of a government  

    Articles of Confederation (1777) the document that created the first central government for the United States; was replaced by the Constitution in 1789  

    Northwest Ordinance of 1787- legislation passed by Congress to establish a political structure for the Northwest Territory and create a system for the admission of new states  

    Tariff a tax on imports or exports (p. 159) 

    Shays’s Rebellion (1786–87) an uprising of Massachusetts’s farmers, led by Daniel Shays, to protest high taxes, heavy debt, and farm foreclosures 

    Virginia Plan (1787) the plan for government proposed at the Constitutional Convention in which the national government would have supreme power and a legislative branch would have two houses with representation determined by state population 

    New Jersey Plan a proposal to create a unicameral legislature with equal representation of states rather than representation by population; rejected at the Constitutional Convention 

    Great Compromise (1787) an agreement worked out at the Constitutional Convention establishing that a state’s population would determine representation in the lower house of the legislature, while each state would have equal representation in the upper house of the legislature 

    Three-Fifths Compromise (1787) an agreement worked out at the Constitutional Convention stating that only three-fifths of the slaves in a state would count when determining its population for representation in the lower house of Congress  

    Antifederalists people who opposed ratification of the Constitution  

    Federalists people who supported ratification of the Constitution  

    Federalist Papers a series of essays that defended and explained the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the proposed national government  

    amendment official change, correction, or addition to a law or constitution  

    Bill of Rights the first 10 amendments to the Constitution; ratified in 1791 


    Unit 5 Vocabulary 


    precedent an action or decision that later serves as an example  

    Judiciary Act of 1789 legislation passed by Congress that created the federal court system  

    Neutrality Proclamation (1793) a statement made by President George Washington that the United States would not side with any of the nations at war in Europe following the French Revolution  

    Federalist Party a political party created in the 1790s and influenced by Alexander Hamilton that wanted to strengthen the federal government and promote industry and trade  

    Democratic-Republican Party a political party founded in the 1790s by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and other leaders who wanted to preserve the power of the state governments and promote agriculture 

    XYZ affair (1797) an incident in which French agents attempted to get a bribe and loans from U.S. diplomats in exchange for an agreement that French privateers would no longer attack American ships; it led to an undeclared naval war between the two countries 

    Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) laws passed by a Federalist-dominated Congress aimed at protecting the government from treasonous ideas, actions, and people 

    Marbury v. Madison (1803) U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review 

    Louisiana Purchase (1803) the purchase of French land between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains that doubled the size of the United States 

     Lewis and Clark expedition an expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark that began in 1804 to explore the Louisiana Purchase 


    Unit 6 Vocabulary


    Impressment- the practice of forcing people to serve in the army or navy; led to increased tensions between Great Britain and the United States in the early 1800s

    Embargo Act (1807) a law that prohibited American merchants from trading with other countries

    Non-Intercourse Act (1809) a law that replaced the Embargo Act and restored trade with all nations except Britain, France, and their colonies

    Battle of Tippecanoe (1811) U.S. victory over an Indian confederation that wanted to stop white settlement in the Northwest Territory; increased tensions between Great Britain and the United States

    War Hawks members of Congress who wanted to declare war against Britain after the Battle of Tippecanoe

    Treaty of Ghent (1814) a treaty signed by the United States and Britain ending the War of 1812

    Battle of New Orleans (1815) the greatest U.S. victory in the War of 1812; actually took place two weeks after a peace treaty had been signed ending the war


    Era of Good Feelings Vocabulary (Unit 6.5):


    Era of Good Feelings  a period of peace, pride, and progress for the United States from 1815 to 1825

    Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817) an agreement that limited naval power on the Great Lakes for both the United States and British Canada

    Convention of 1818 an agreement between the United States and Great Britain that settled fishing rights and established new North American borders 

    Adams-Onís Treaty (1819) an agreement in which Spain gave Florida to the United States 

    Monroe Doctrine (1823) President James Monroe’s statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility

    American System Henry Clay’s plan for raising tariffs to pay for internal improvements such as better roads and canals

    Missouri Compromise (1820) an agreement proposed by Henry Clay that allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine to enter as a free state and outlawed slavery in any territories or states north of 36°30´ latitude


     Unit 7 Vocabulary


    spoils system a politicians’ practice of giving government jobs to his or her supporters 

    Tariff of Abominations (1828) the nickname given to a tariff by southerners who opposed it

    nullification crisis a dispute led by John C. Calhoun that said that states could ignore federal laws if they believed those laws violated the Constitution

    McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) U.S. Supreme Court case that declared the Second Bank of the United States was constitutional and that Maryland could not interfere with it (Federal government is superior to states)

    Indian Removal Act (1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River 




    Unit 9 and 10 Vocabulary

    Industrial Revolution a period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s

    interchangeable parts a process developed by Eli Whitney in the 1790s that called for making each part of a machine exactly the same

    strike the refusal of workers to perform their jobs until employers meet their demands

    cotton gin a machine invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 to remove seeds from short-staple cotton; revolutionized the cotton industry

    spirituals emotional Christian songs sung by enslaved people in the South that mixed African and European elements and usually expressed slaves’ religious beliefs

    Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) a rebellion in which Nat Turner led a group of slaves in Virginia in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families


    Unit 12 Vocabulary


    nativists U.S. citizens who opposed immigration because they were suspicious of immigrants and feared losing jobs to them

    Second Great Awakening a period of religious evangelism that began in the 1790s and became widespread in the United States by the 1830s

    temperance movement a social reform effort begun in the mid-1800s to encourage people to drink less alcohol

    American Anti-Slavery Society an organization started by William Lloyd Garrison whose members wanted immediate emancipation and racial equality for African Americans

    Seneca Falls Convention (1848) the fi rst national women’s rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written



    Unit 15 Vocabulary


    Reconstruction (1865–77) the period following the Civil War during which the U.S. government worked to reunite the nation and to rebuild the southern states 

    Ten Percent Plan President Abraham Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction; once 10 percent of voters in a former Confederate state took a U.S. loyalty oath, they could form a new state government and be readmitted to the Union

    Freedmen’s Bureau an agency established by Congress in 1865 to help poor people throughout the South

    Black Codes laws passed in the southern states during Reconstruction that greatly limited the freedom and rights of African Americans

    Civil Rights Act of 1866 a law that gave African Americans legal rights equal to those of white Americans 

    Reconstruction Acts (1867–68) the laws that put the southern states under U.S. military control and required them to draft new constitutions upholding the Fourteenth Amendment

    sharecropping a system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops

    Compromise of 1877 an agreement to settle the disputed presidential election of 1876; Democrats agreed to accept Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president in return for the removal of federal troops from the South



    Unit 4 Review PowerPoint


    Chapter 11, 12, and 13 Review PowerPoint

    Chapter 14 Terms List

    Chapter 15 Terms List

    Chapter 16 Terms List

    Chapter 17 Terms List