Welcome to 8th Grade Physical & Honors Science / 6th Grade Earth & Space Science

  • I am Mr. Saputo and I will be guiding you through the wonderful world of Physical & Honors Science / Earth & Space Science, which includes Methods of Science, Earth's Atmosphere & Structures and Astronomy.  We will be utilizing the Glencoe Physical Science Interactive Student Textbooks in class.  Topics will include: Nature of Science (N.O.S.), Scientific Method, Atmosphere & Weather, Earth's Structures - Changes Over Time, Plate Techtonics, the Solar System Stars & the Universe, etc...

     

    Student grades will comprise of the following categories: Tests/Projects & Presentations 40%, Labs/Classwork & Quizzes 50%, Homework 10%

     

    Student safety is my number 1 priority.  All students will be asked to sign a Student Safety Contract for participation in Science Labs.  Students will follow all written and verbal teacher instructions regarding lab  and safety procedures during laboratory work.  Students will know the location of safety devices and know how to use them correctly (fire extinguisher, eye wash station, emergency exits, etc...),  wear protective eye wear (safety goggles) and appropriate clothing at all times during labs, know where and how to get help in case of an emergency, pass a safety test administered by the instructor.

     

    Students are responsible for copying their complete assignments weekly and submitting there work to the teacher in the appropriate bin in the front of the room next to the door.  Parents should check to make sure students are writing down their assignments & completing and submitting their work weekly.  

     

    Students need to follow the classroom rules of behavior:

    1. Be Safe - follow directions & keep hands to themselves 
    2. Be On Time - seated & quiet & ready to learn when the bell rings
    3. Be An Active Learner - engage in classroom discussions & activities
    4. Be Respectful - raise hand & get permission to speak
    5. Be Responsible - bring materials & meet deadlines

     

    Class Schedule

    1st Period -  Physical Science Honors

    2nd Period - Physical Science Honors

    3rd Period - Physical Science

    4th Period - Physical Science

    5th period - Advanced Earth & Space Science

    6th period - Advanced Earth & Space Science

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  • 6th Grade QSMA #2 / Semester 1 Review

     

    1. What is science? (P.6)

    Science is the investigation & explanation of natural events & of new information that results from those investigations

    1. What is the difference between a Scientific Theory and Scientific Law? (P.8-9)

    Scientific theories are well supported & widely accepted explanations of nature with many different observations over a long period of time. Theories may be modified over time.  A Scientific Law is a description of a scientific relationship under specific conditions in the natural world.  Laws must happen

    1. What is a hypothesis? (P.22)

    A hypothesis is a testable idea or explanation that leads to scientific investigation

    1. What are the various methods of testing a hypothesis? (P.20-21)

    Experiments, Observational Studies, Observations and Models

    1. What is the difference between an Independent (Test) variable & a Dependent (Outcome) variable? (P.23)

    The test variable is the variable that is purposefully changed by the investigator & outcome variable is the variable that is measured or observed as a result of the test variable change

    1. What are the basic steps of Scientific Methods? (P.24-25)

    Define a problem, Form a hypothesis & make predictions, plan an investigation, identify variables, collect & organize data, interpret data & analyze information, draw & defend conclusions

    1. What is the difference between repetition and replication? (P.28)

    Repetition happens by the same investigator within the investigation while replication happens when another investigator redoes the entire investigation over looking to get the same or similar results

    1. What is the difference between a Scientific and Societal Law?

    Scientific laws do not change while societal laws change as society norms (acceptable behavior) change

    1. What are the two methods of dividing Earth’s layers? (P.344-346)

    Earth can be divided by composition or physical layers

    1. Name the layers in each method and give characteristics of each (P.345-346)

    Composition (crust, mantle, core)

    Physical layers (lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer core & inner core)

    1. What is the Continental Drift Theory? (P.352)

    Continental Drift Theory states that the continents were once together in one super continent (Pangea) that are moving away from each other

    1. What evidences supports the Continental Drift Theory? (P.352-355)

    Continental fit – continents fit together like puzzle pieces

    Geological evidence – mountain ranges & rock composition on different continents that match

    Climate evidence – glacial grooves on different continents match

    Fossil evidence – index fossils on different continents match

    1. What is the Theory of Plate Tectonics? (P.356)

    Theory developed to describe the large-scale movement of Earth’s lithosphere and how & why features in Earth’s crust form & continents move.

    1. What evidence supports the Theory of Plate Tectonics? (P. 372-373, 379, 395)

    Tectonic plate movement is supported by mountain building, volcanic eruptions & earthquake activities near plate boundaries, sea-floor spreading, fault-zones, and movement of continents

    1. What are the three types of Plate Boundaries and the movement of each?

    Convergent – plates move towards each other or together

    Divergent – plates move away from each other or divide

    Transform – plates move horizontally in opposite directions

    1. What type of plate boundaries can form mountains?

    Convergent – folded & volcanic mountains

    Divergent – fault-block mountains

    1. What type of plate boundaries generate earthquakes?

    Convergent, Divergent & Transform

    1. Where does most of the volcanic and earthquake activity occur?

    Near plate boundaries

    1. What 2 processes result in the formation of Igneous Rock? (P.331)

    Cooling & Hardening of magma (melted rock) forms igneous rock

    1. What 2 processes result in sediments forming Sedimentary rock? (P.330)

    Compaction & Cementation of sediments forms sedimentary rock

    1. What types of rock can become sediments? (p.332-333)

    Sedimentary, Metamorphic & Igneous rock can all become sediments

     

    1. What 2 processes result in the formation of Metamorphic Rock? (P.331)

    Extreme Heat & Pressure forms metamorphic rock

    1. What types of rock can become Metamorphic Rock? (P.332-333)

    Sedimentary, Metamorphic & Igneous rock can all become metamorphic rock

    1. Describe what Weathering is and give one example (Draw a picture) (P.462)

    Weathering is the physical or chemical breaking down of rocks into sediments. Ice wedging where water is frozen in a crack in a rock, expands then melts and re-freezes

    1. What is Physical (Mechanical) Weathering? (P.462)

    The breaking down of rock by physical changes through wind, water, ice, plant or animal action, change in pressure or temperature, & gravity

    1. What is Chemical Weathering? (P.466)

    The breaking down of rock by chemical reactions through oxygen in the air or acids in rainwater or groundwater

    1. Describe what Erosion is and give one example (Draw a picture) (P.472)

    Erosion is the process by which sediments & other materials are moved from one place to another by wind, water, ice or gravity.  Landslides, mudflows, sediments carried by streams

    1. Describe what Deposition is and give one example (Draw a picture) (P.472-475)

    Deposition is the process by which eroded materials is dropped or set in place as wind, water, ice or gravity slows down.  Alluvial fans and deltas are examples of deposition

    1. What natural process of chemical weathering causes Florida limestone to dissolve forming caves? (P. 476)

    Slightly acidic ground water causes chemical erosion by dissolving rock. 

    1. How sinkholes are formed? (P.476)

    When the groundwater is removed from underground caverns, the roof of the cavern can collapse forming a sinkhole

    1. What can be done to prevent weathering & erosion of Florida’s Sand Dunes? (P.507)

    Planting various types of vegetation such as sea oats, fences and other barriers, sand ladders and wooden walkways to prevent human trampling of dunes.  Education of the importance of dunes may help as well.

    1. Which type of rock are fossils most likely to be found in? Why? (P.415)

    Sedimentary rock because it is formed by compaction & cementation near earth’s surface without extreme heat and or pressure that would melt the fossils as in metamorphic & igneous rocks

     

     

    1. Describe the principle of Superposition and how this helps with Relative-Age dating? (P.429)

    The Law of Superposition states that the younger rock layers lie above the older rock layers if undisturbed.  Fossils & artifacts found in these layers can be dated compared to other rock layers.  Geologic columns can be created by combining multiple rock columns from different areas together

    1. Describe the principle of Crosscutting to determine the relative age of rocks. (P.432)

    The Law of Crosscutting states that a fault or a body of rock, such as an intrusion must be younger than any existing feature or layer of rock that the fault or rock body cuts through

    1. How are fossils used to determine relative ages of rock? (P.434)

    Scientists classify fossilized remain based on evolutionary changes over time.  They use this classification of fossils to date the relative ages of the rocks in which the fossils were found

    1. Describe what an Index Fossil is and how they help in Relative-Age Dating? (P.449)

    Index fossils are the remains of organisms that are relatively common, found over a large area, with distinct fossil features and lived for short periods of geologic time.  Once the absolute age of an index fossil is known, it can be used to determine the age of rock layers that contain the same index fossil anywhere on Earth

    1. Describe what Radioactive Decay is and how this is used to help in Absolute-Age Dating? (P.442)

    Radioactive decay is the breakdown of a radioactive isotope into a stable isotope of the same or different element.  Radioactive decay occurs at a constant rate allowing scientists to calculate a half-life for each radioactive isotope.  Using the percentages of radioactive and stable isotopes the number of half-lives allows scientists to calculate the absolute age of a sample

    1. What is the Geologic Time Period & what do scientists use to determine the periods?

    The Geologic Time Period are the subdivisions of eras on the geological time scale.  Sudden changes in the fossil record found in different layers of rock were used to mark divisions in geologic time

    1. What are the materials used by scientists to tell us about Earth’s climate history? (P.422-423)

    Fossils, Tree rings, Sea-floor sediments and Ice cores

    Comments (-1)
  • The QSMA #2 is Thurday December 5th.  Make-up day Friday, Dember 6th.  Study Review Worksheet

    Comments (-1)
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